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Undelete object from database

undelete

Have you ever tried to delete an object from the database by mistake or other error? You can undelete object – sometimes.

Then you should read on in this short post.

I recently came across a good co-worker of mine who lost one of the views on the developer database. He called me for help.

Fortunately the database was in FULL RECOVERY mode – so I could extract the object from the database log and send the script to him for his further work that day. I think I saved him a whole day of work…

The undelete object script

Here is the script I used:

select 
	convert(varchar(max),substring([RowLog Contents 0], 33, LEN([RowLog Contents 0]))) as [Script]
from 
	fn_dblog(NULL,NULL)
where 1=1
	and [Operation]='LOP_DELETE_ROWS' 
	and [Context]='LCX_MARK_AS_GHOST'
and [AllocUnitName]='sys.sysobjvalues.clst'

Ready, SET, go – how does SQL server handle recursive CTE’s

This blogpost will cover some of the basics in recursive CTE’s and explain the approach done by the SQL Server engine.

First of all, a quick recap on what a recursive query is.

Recursive queries are useful when building hierarchies, traverse datasets and generate arbitrary rowsets etc. The recursive part (simply) means joining a rowset with itself an arbitrary number of times.

A recursive query is defined by an anchor set (the base rowset of the recursion) and a recursive part (the operation that should be done over the previous rowset).

The basics in recursive CTE

A recursive query helps in a lot of scenarios. For instance, where a dataset is built as a parent-child relationship and the requirement is to “unfold” this dataset and show the hierarchy in a ragged format.

A recursive CTE has a defined syntax – and can be written in general terms like this – and don’t run way because of the general syntax – a lot of examples (in real code) will come:

select result_from_previous.*
 from result_from_previous
 union all
 select result_from_current.*
 from set_operation(result_from_previous, mytable) as result_from_current

Or rewritten in another way:

select result_from_previous.*
 from result_from_previous
 union all
 select result_from_current.*
 from result_from_previous.*
 join mytable
 on condition(result_from_previous)

Another way to write the query (using cross apply):

select result_from_current.*
from result_from_previous
cross apply (
select result_from_previous.*
union all
select *
from mytable
where condition(result_from_previous.*)
) as result_from_current

The last one – with the cross apply – is row based and a lot slower than the other two. It iterates over every row from the previous result and computes the scalar condition (which returns true or false). The same row then gets compared to each row in mytable and the current row of result_from_previous. When these conditions are real – the query can be rewritten as a join. Why you should not use the cross apply for recursive queries.

The reverse – from join to cross apply – is not always true. To know this, we need to look at the algebra of distributivity.

Distributivity algebra

Most of us have already learned that below mathematics is true:

X x (Y + Z) = (X x Y) + (X x Z)

But below is not always true:

X ^ (Y x Z) = (X ^ Z) x (X ^ Y)

Or said with words, distributivity means that the order of operations is not important. The multiplication can be done after the addition and the addition can be done after the multiplication. The result will be the same no matter what.

This arithmetic can be used to generate the relational algebra – it’s pretty straight forward:

set_operation(A union all B, C) = set_operation(A, C) union all set_operation(B, C)

The condition above is true as with the first condition in the arithmetic.

So the union all over the operations is the same as the operations over the union all. This also implies that you cannot use operators like top, distinct, outer join (more exceptions here). The distribution is not the same between top over union all and union all over top. Microsoft has done a lot of good thinking in the recursive approach to reach one ultimate goal – forbid operators that do not distribute over union all.

With this information and knowledge our baseline for building a recursive CTE is now in place.

The first recursive query

Based on the intro and the above algebra we can now begin to build our first recursive CTE.

Consider a sample rowset (sampletree):

id parentId name
1 NULL Ditlev
2 NULL Claus
3 1 Jane
4 2 John
5 3 Brian

From above we can see that Brian refers to Jane who refers to Ditlev. And John refers to Claus. This is fairly easy to read from this rowset – but what if the hierarchy is more complex and unreadable?

A sample requirement could be to “unfold” the hierarchy in a ragged hierarchy so it is directly readable.

The anchor

We start with the anchor set (Ditlev and Claus). In this dataset the anchor is defined by parentId is null.

This gives us an anchor-query like below:

recursive CTE 1

Now on to the next part.

The recursive

 After the anchor part, we are ready to build the recursive part of the query.

The recursive part is actually the same query with small differences. The main select is the same as the anchor part. We need to make a self join in the select statement for the recursive part.

Before we dive more into the total statement – I’ll show the statement below. Then I’ll run through the details.

recursive CTE 2

Back to the self-reference. Notice the two red underlines in the code. The top one indicates the CTE’s name and the second line indicates the self-reference. This is joined directly in the recursive part in order to do the arithmetic logic in the statement. The join is done between the recursive results parentId and the id in the anchor result. This gives us the possibility to get the name column from the anchor statement.

Notice that I’ve also put in another blank field in the anchor statement and added the parentName field in the recursive statement. This gives us the “human readable” output where I can find the hierarchy directly by reading from left to right.

To get data from the above CTE I just have to make a select statement from this:

recursive CTE 3

And the results:

recursive CTE 4

I can now directly read that Jane refers to Ditlev and Brian refers to Jane.

But how is this done when the SQL engine executes the query – the next part tries to explain that.

The SQL engines handling

Given the full CTE statement above I’ll try to explain what the SQL engine does to handle this.

The documented semantics is as follows:

  1. Split the CTE into anchor and recursive parts
  2. Run the anchor member creating the first base result set (T0)
  3. Run the recursive member with Ti as an input and Ti+1 as an output
  4. Repeat step 3 until an empty result set is returned
  5. Return the result set. This is a union all set of T0 to Tn

So let me try to rewrite the above query to match this sequence.

The anchor statement we already know:

recursive CTE 5

First recursive query:

recursive CTE 6

Second recursive query:

recursive CTE 7

The n recursive query:

The union all statement:

This gives us the exactly same result as we saw before with the rewrite:

Notice that the statement that I’ve put in above named Tn is actually empty. This to give the example of the empty statement that makes the SQL engine stop its execution in the recursive CTE.

This is how I would describe the SQL engines handling of a recursive CTE.

Based on this very simple example, I guess you already can think of ways to use this in your projects and daily tasks.

But what about the performance and execution plan?

Performance

The execution plan for the original recursive CTE looks like this:

The top part of this execution plan is the anchor statement and the bottom part is the recursive statement.

Notice that I haven’t made any indexes in the table, so we are reading on heaps here.

But what if the data is more complex in structure and depth. Let’s try to base the answer on an example:

From the attached sql code you’ll find a script to generate +20.000 rows in a new table called complextree. This data is from a live solution and contains medical procedure names in a hierarchy. The data is used to show the relationships in medical procedures done by the Danish hospital system. It is both deep and complex in structure. (Sorry for the Danish letters in the data…).

When we run a recursive CTE on this data – we get the exactly same execution plan:

This is also what I would expect as the amount of data when read from heaps very seldom impact on the generated execution plan.

The query runs on my PC for 25 seconds.

Now let me put an index in the table and let’s see the performance and execution plan.

The index is only put on the parentDwId as, according to our knowledge from this article is the recursive parts join column.

The query now runs 1 second to completion and generates this execution plan:

The top line is still the anchor and the bottom part is the recursive part. Notice now the SQL engine uses the non-clustered index to perform the execution and the performance gain is noticeable.

Conclusion

I hope that you’ve now become more familiar with the recursive CTE statement and are willing to try it on your own projects and tasks.

The basics is somewhat straight forward – but beware that the query can become complex and hard to debug as the demand for data and output becomes stronger. But don’t be scared. As I always say – “Don’t do a complex query all at once, start small and build it up as you go along”.

Happy coding.

External links:

The with operator in T-SQL: https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms175972.aspx

Recursive CTE’s from MSDN: https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms186243.aspx

Wikipedia on distributivity: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Distributive_property

Use of hierarchyid in SQL Server

I attended a TDWI conference in May 2016 in Chicago. Here I got a hint about the datatype hierarchyid in SQL Server which could optimize and eliminate the good old parent/child hierarchy.

Until then I (and several other in the class) haven’t heard about the hierarchyid datatype in SQL Server. So I had to find out and learn this.

Here’s a blogpost covering some of the aspects of the datatype hierarchyid – including:

  • Introduction
  • How to use it
  • How to optimize data in the table
  • How to work with data in the hierarchy-structure
  • Goodies

Introduction

The datatype hierarchyid was introduced in the SQL Server as from version 2008. It is a variable length system datatype. The datatype can be used to represent a given element’s position in a hierarchy – e.g. an employee’s position within an organization.

The datatype is extremely compact. The storage is dependent in the average fanout (fanout = the number of children in all nodes). For smaller fanouts (0-7) the typical storage is about 6 x Log A * n bits. Where A is the average fanout and n in the total number of nodes in the tree. Given above formula an organization with 100,000 employees and a fanout of 6 levels will take around 38 bits – rounded to 5 bytes of total storage for the hierarchy structure.

Though the limitation of the datatype is 892 bytes there is a lot of room for extremely complex and deep structures.

When representing the values to and from the hierarchyid datatype the syntax is:

[level id 1]/[level id 2]/..[level id n]

Example:

1/7/3

The data between the ‘/ can be of decimal types e.g. 0.1, 2.3 etc.

Given two specific levels in the hierarchy a and b given that a < b means that b comes after a in a depth first order of comparison traversing the tree structure. Any search and comparison on the tree is done this way by the SQL engine.

The datatype directly supports deletions and inserts through the GetDescendant method (see later for full list of methods using this feature). This method enables generation of siblings to the right of any given node and to the left of any given node. Even between two siblings. NOTE: when inserting a new node between two siblings will produce values that are slightly less compact.

Hierarchyid in SQL Server how to use it

Given an example of data – see compete sql script at the end of this post to generate the example used in this post.

hierarchyid in SQL Server 1

The Num field is a simple ascending counter for each level member in the hierarchy.

There are some basic methods to be used in order to build the hierarchy using the hierarchy datatype.

GetRoot method

The GetRoot method gives the hierarchyid of the rootnode in the hierarchy. Represented by the EmployeeId 1 in above example.

The code and result could look like this:

hierarchyid in SQL Server 2

The value ‘0x’ from the OrgPath field is the representation of the string ‘/’ giving the root of the hierarchy. This can be seen using a simple cast to varchar statement:

hierarchyid in SQL Server 3

Building the new structure with the hierarchyid dataype using a recursive SQL statement:

hierarchyid in SQL Server 4

Notice the building of the path after the union all. This complies to the above mentioned syntax for building the hierarchy structure to convert to a hierarchyid datatype.

If I was to build the path for the EmployeeId 10 (Name = ‘Mads’) in above example it would look like this: ‘/2/2/’. A select statement converting the hierarchyid field OrgPath for the same record, reveals the same thing:

hierarchyid in SQL Server 5

Notice the use of the ToString method here. Another build in method to use for the hierarchyid in SQL Server.

GetLevel method

The GetLevel method returns the current nodes level with an index of 0 from the top:

hierarchyid in SQL Server 6

GetDescendant method

This method returns a new hierarchyid based on the two parameters child1 and child2.

The use of these parameters is described in the BOL HERE.

Below is showed some short examples on the usage.

Getting a new hierarchyid when a new employee referring to top manager is hired:

hierarchyid in SQL Server 7

Getting a new hierarchyid when a new hire is referring to Jane on the hierarchy:

hierarchyid in SQL Server 8

Dynamic insert new records in the hierarchy table – this can easily be converted into a stored procedure:

hierarchyid in SQL Server 9

Notice the new GetAncestor method which takes one variable (the number of steps up the hierarchy) and returns that levels Hierarchyid. In this case just 1 step up the hierarchy.

More methods

There are several more methods to use when working on a hierarchy table – as found on BOL:

GetDescendant – returns a new child node of a given parent. Takes to parameters.

GetLevel – returns the given level for a node (0 index)

GetRoot – returns a root member

ToString – converts a hierarchyid datatype to readable string

IsDescendantOf – returns boolean telling if a given node is a descendant of given parent

Parse – converts a string to a hierarchyid

Read – is used implicit in the ToString method. Cannot be called by the T-SQL statement

GetParentedValue – returns node from new root in case of moving a given node

Write – returns a binary representation of the hierarchyid. Cannot be called by the T-SQL statement.

Optimization

As in many other scenarios of the SQL Server the usual approach to indexing and optimization can be used.

To help on the usual and most used queries I would make below two indexes on the example table:

hierarchyid in SQL Server 10

But with this like with any other indexing strategy – base it on the given scenario and usage.

Goodies

So why use this feature and all the coding work that comes with it?

Well – from my perspective – it has just become very easy to quickly get all elements either up or down from a given node in the hierarchy.

Get all descendants from a specific node

If I would like to get all elements below Jane in the hierarchy I just have to run this command:

hierarchyid in SQL Server 11

Think of the work you would have to do if this was a non hierarchy structured table using only parent/child and recursice sql if the structure was very complex and deep.

I know what I would choose.

Conclusion

As seen above the datatype hierarchyid can be used to give order to the structure of a hierarchy in a way that is both efficient and fairly easy maintained.

If one should optimize the structure even further, then the EmployeeId and the ManagerId could be dropped as the EmployeeId is now as distinct as the OrgPath and can be replaced by this. The ManagerId is only used to build the structure – but this is now also given by the OrgPath.

Happy coding…

External references:

Hierarchyid from MSDN

Using hierarchyid from TechNet

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